Cutting and trimming:
Cutting and trimming are usually done using a guillotine cutter.
For, books,… large press sheets need to be folded into signatures. This involves a series of right-angle folds in which the sheet is folded multiple times. Some common types of folds are:
- The half fold
- The accordion fold
- The gatefold
- The French fold
- The letter fold
There are different ways of binding sheets together. Below are the most commonly used techniques:
- Perfect binding
- Thread sewing
- Comb binding
- Spiral binding
- Loose-leaf binding
Embossing is the process of adding a relief image to a book cover or other printed material. Sometimes an ink or foil is used to accent the relief image.
Foils can be a real eyecatcher when applied to book or covers. This is especially true for metallic foils which reflect light and add a silvery or golden glow.
There are different types of coatings that can be applied to printed matter.
- • Varnishes protect and also have a decorative purpose.
- • Primers are used to improve the ink reception or to facilitate the application of another type of coating.
- • For packaging, barrier coatings improve the resistance to oxygen, water or chemicals.
Laminating refers to bonding a separate material or layer of material to the printed matter.
Irregularly shaped printed matter such as coasters or labels are cut out of the substrate in a process called diecutting. The die contains knives or creasing rules that have been prepared specifically for a certain shape.
Products like envelopes, stamps or labels need to have a moistenable adhesive applied.
Indexing refers to adding plastic index tabs or index thumb cuts to the edges of printed sheets. These can help readers locate specific information.